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In this paper, a novel lightweight anomaly and fault detection infrastructure called anomaly detection by resource monitoring (Ayaka) is presented for information appliances. Ayaka provides a general monitoring method for detecting anomalies using only resource usage information on systems independent of its domain, target application, and programming languages. Ayaka modifies the kernel to detect faults and uses a completely application black-box approach based on machine learning methods. It uses the clustering method to quantize the resource usage vector data and learn the normal patterns with a hidden Markov Model. In the running phase, Ayaka finds anomalies by comparing the application resource usage with the learned model. The evaluation experiment indicates that our prototype system is able to detect anomalies, such as SQL injection and buffer overrun, without significant overheads.