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Various actuators have been studied to develop micro robots for a capsule endoscope. In particular, some locomotive mechanisms based on the SMA (shape memory alloy) actuator, the PZT actuator, the Polymer actuator, and the micro motor have been actively studied to fabricate a microrobot for a capsule endoscope. Before we fabricate microrobots, smart material-based actuators such as SMA, PZT, Polymer, and a micro motor are evaluated from the viewpoint of power consumption, response time, and generative force. Based on the evaluation results, some microrobots are developed properly to diagnose the digestive organ. The earthworm-like robot based on the SMA and PZT actuators is fabricated and tested in the colon of a swine in order to demonstrate the performance of locomotion. However, the smart actuator-based micro robot does not supply enough driving force to locomote in the digestive organ. Therefore, a paddling-based locomotive mechanism is constructed and tested in order to diagnose diseases in the small intestine. Based on these research efforts, we expect to develop the next generation microrobot that can diagnose diseases in human digestive organs.