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Energy storage devices such as lithium-ion and nickel-metal hydrate batteries and ultracapacitors have been considered for utilization in plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and HEVs to improve efficiency and performance and reduce gas mileage. In this paper, we analyze and model an advanced energy storage device, namely, zinc bromide, for vehicular applications. This system has high energy and power density, high efficiency, and long life. A series of tests has been conducted on the storage to create an electrical model of the system. The modeling results show that the open-circuit voltage of the battery is a direct function of the battery's state of charge (SOC). In addition, the battery internal resistance is also a function of SOC at constant temperature. A Kalman filtering technique is also designed to adjust the estimated SOC according to battery current.
Date of Publication: Feb. 2010