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Two-phase computational fluid dynamics analysis of a hypervapotron heatsink for ITER first wall applications

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3 Author(s)
Youchison, D.L. ; Sandia Nat. Labs., Albuquerque, NM, USA ; Bullock, J.H. ; Ulrickson, M.A.

Enhanced radial transport in the plasma and the effect of ELMS may increase the ITER first wall heat loads to as much as 4 to 5 MW/m2 over localized areas. One proposed heatsink that can handle these higher loads is a CuCrZr hypervapotron. One concept for a first wall panel consists of 20 hypervapotron channels, 1400 mm long and 48.5 mm wide. The nominal cooling conditions anticipated for each channel are 400 g/s of water at 3 MPa and 100degC. This will result in boiling over a portion of the total length, and two-phase thermalhydraulic analysis is required to predict accurately the thermal performance. Existing heat transfer correlations used for nucleate boiling are not appropriate here, because the flow does not reach fully developed conditions in the multi-segmented channels. Our design-by-analysis approach used two commercial codes, CFdesign and Fluent, to perform computational fluid dynamics analyses with conjugate heat transfer. The Fluent simulations use the Rensselaer (RPI) model for wall heat flux partitioning to model nucleate boiling as implemented in user defined functions. A more computationally expensive volume-of-fluid (VOF) multiphase model encompassing only several hypervapotron teeth provided a check on the results. We present a comparison between the two codes for this Eulerian multi-phase problem that relies on the steam tables for the fluid properties. The analyses optimized the hypervapotron geometry including teeth height and pitch and the depth of the back channel to permit highly effective boiling heat transfer in the grooves between teeth while ensuring that no boiling could occur at the back channel exit. The analysis used a representative heat flux profile with the peak heat flux of 5 MW/m2 limited to a 50-mm-length. The surface temperature of the heatsink is kept well below 350degC. The baseline design uses 2 mm for the teeth height, a 3 mm width and 6 mm pitch, and a back channel depth of 8 mm. The teeth are detac- hed from the sidewall by a 2-mm-wide slot on both sides that aids in sweep-out and quenching of the vapor bubbles.

Published in:

Fusion Engineering, 2009. SOFE 2009. 23rd IEEE/NPSS Symposium on

Date of Conference:

1-5 June 2009