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Information technology (IT) and organizational culture (OC) play very important roles in determining the success or failure of the implementation of knowledge management (KM). Nevertheless, few studies explore the effects of OC and IT on the KM. Hence, the purpose of this study is to empirically explore the effects of IT and OC in the implementation of KM. Moreover, based on the definition of the five KM gaps, the relationships among KM, IT and OC are analyzed and demonstrated by means of literature reviews and questionnaire analyses. The findings reveal that IT and OC play very important roles in determining the magnitudes of these KM gaps. Furthermore, this research discusses how to enhance the effectiveness of implementing KM through appropriate IT and OC.