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The effects of high Xe (15%) and He (70%) contents in the ternary gas mixture (Xe-He-Ne) on luminous efficiency were examined experimentally in 50-in PDPs with a full-high-definition cell size. The related discharge phenomena, including the electron-heating efficiency, Xe-excitation efficiency, and electric-field distribution, were also investigated by using a 2-D fluid simulation. The experimental results showed that almost the same improvement in luminous efficiency was obtained when increasing either the Xe content by 4% from 11% to 15% or the He content by 20% from 50% to 70% in the Xe-He-Ne gas mixture. In comparison with the reference gas mixture (Xe11%-He50%-Ne), by increasing only the He content from 50% to 70%, the luminous efficiency was improved by about 15%, mainly due to a low power consumption, whereas by increasing only the Xe content from 11% to 15%, the luminous efficiency was improved by about 17%, mainly due to a high luminance. In the simulation results, the improvement of discharge efficiency for the high-Xe case was partly due to the electron-heating efficiency improved by the formation of the large cathode-sheath potential difference. Furthermore, the increase in Xe-excitation efficiency partly contributed to the improvement of discharge efficiency for the high-Xe case. On the other hand, the improvement of discharge efficiency for the high-He case was mainly due to the Xe-excitation efficiency by electrons improved by the high energy gain per unit electron.