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Traditionally, European engineering education has, in the main, followed the German patternÂ¿a division of educational emphasis producing two streams of graduates: the craftsman-specialists and the scientist-engineers. Until recently, this philosophy remained monolithic in concept. Today, under the prods of industry, the needs of national research, and the example of the United States, European education is beginning to bridge the wide gap between theory and practice. The European technical school curricula are being broadened to provide a general as well as a practical background and the theoretically oriented university that formerly catered exclusively to the mental elite is giving more weight and time to the laboratory and working more closely with industry. In addition, provision is now made for a student to transfer from one type of school to the other later in his career.