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An efficient and strongly secure smart card mechanism involves the use of a technological background taken from the fields of computers, VLSI design and material science. The result of such a mixture is a miniature, fully operational, computation system. The nature of the data involved in smart card transactions and smart card intended uses, introduce another important factor in the smart card design mechanism which is security. The evolution of VLSI technology allows the efficient implementation of costly cryptographic operations in the smart card design methodology. Apart from the traditional cryptographic algorithms, additional techniques and special design materials have been introduced in order to protect the smart card system from cryptanalytic attacks. New architectures of software design, like object-oriented programming, give the opportunity to implement programmable multi-application cards. Thus, smart cards are transformed into highly secure devices and their establishment in the modern computer market can be considered certain. This establishment is bound to finance upcoming research in smart cards so that this product can become the basic component of electronic commerce worldwide.