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The area of Internet traffic measurement has advanced enormously over the last couple of years. This was mostly due to the increase in network access speeds, due to the appearance of bandwidth-hungry applications, due to the ISPs' increased interest in precise user traffic profile information and also a response to the enormous growth in the number of connected users. These changes greatly affected the work of Internet service providers and network administrators, which have to deal with increasing resource demands and abrupt traffic changes brought by new applications. This survey explains the main techniques and problems known in the field of IP traffic analysis and focuses on application detection. First, it separates traffic analysis into packet-based and flow-based categories and details the advantages and problems for each approach. Second, this work cites the techniques for traffic analysis accessible in the literature, along with the analysis performed by the authors. Relevant techniques include signature-matching, sampling and inference. Third, this work shows the trends in application classification analysis and presents important and recent references in the subject. Lastly, this survey draws the readers' interest to open research topics in the area of traffic analysis and application detection and makes some final remarks.