Skip to Main Content
We apply recent panel methodology to investigate the relationship between electricity consumption and real GDP for a set of 12 European Union countries using annual data for the period 1970-2004. Tests for panel unit roots, cointegration in heterogeneous panels and panel causality are employed. The results show a long-run relationship between the series. We estimate this relationship and test for causality. We find no short-run causality in any direction. These results might help to design appropriate electricity consumption policies in the sample countries, as well as investment policies in interconnections to build a single European market for electricity.