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Polymer optical fiber (POF) sensors have the unique ability to measure high strain distributed along the fiber up to 40% using the optical time-domain reflectometry (OTDR) technique. Both, standard PMMA fibers and perfluorinated (PF) graded-index (GI) POF are introduced and evaluated in potential use and applicability. Further, distributed length change measurement based on cross-correlation analysis of the characteristic fiber signature of PF POF is introduced. We conclude the advances in distributed POF strain sensors technology with respect to application in structural health monitoring. Special focus is on the sensor integration into technical textiles for health monitoring of geotechnical structures and masonry structures. Measurement results of sensor-equipped textiles in different model tests are presented, displacement of soil and cracks in retrofitted masonry structures are detected and evaluated.