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This paper proposes a novel fractional compensation approach for spatial scalable video coding. It simultaneously exploits inter layer correlation and intra layer correlation by learning-based mapping. Instead of using an enhancement layer reconstruction as an entire reference, a set of reference pairs are generated from high-frequency components of both base layer and enhancement layer reconstructions at previous frame. The reference set, which consists of low-resolution and high-resolution patches, can be generated in both encoder and decoder by on-line learning. During the encoding of enhancement layer, a prediction is first gotten from base layer, from which low-resolution patches are extracted. These patches are then used as indices to find the matched high-resolution patches from the reference set. Finally, the prediction enhanced by the high-resolution patches is used for coding. The proposed approach does not need any motion bits. With our proposed FC approach, the performance of H.264 SVC can be improved up to 2.4 dB in spatial scalable coding.