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This paper summarizes the results obtained from geometric and radiometric calibrations of the Phased-Array L-Band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) on the Advanced Land Observing Satellite, which has been in space for three years. All of the imaging modes of the PALSAR, i.e., single, dual, and full polarimetric strip modes and scanning synthetic aperture radar (SCANSAR), were calibrated and validated using a total of 572 calibration points collected worldwide and distributed targets selected primarily from the Amazon forest. Through raw-data characterization, antenna-pattern estimation using the distributed target data, and polarimetric calibration using the Faraday rotation-free area in the Amazon, we performed the PALSAR radiometric and geometric calibrations and confirmed that the geometric accuracy of the strip mode is 9.7-m root mean square (rms), the geometric accuracy of SCANSAR is 70 m, and the radiometric accuracy is 0.76 dB from a corner-reflector analysis and 0.22 dB from the Amazon data analysis (standard deviation). Polarimetric calibration was successful, resulting in a VV/HH amplitude balance of 1.013 (0.0561 dB) with a standard deviation of 0.062 and a phase balance of 0.612deg with a standard deviation of 2.66deg .