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Synchronous generator is a system which has a series of dynamic characteristics as non-linear, fast response and so on. It ensures the stability and security of the power grid and plays an important role. As a result, the effective control of the synchronous generator, it is particularly important. This paper provides a new type of adaptive neural controller, which is based on heuristic dynamic programming (HDP) method. It can be updated on-line, and constantly optimize the controller. Illustrated by the case of the single machine infinite bus system, the simulation of neural controller and the traditional automatic voltage regulator about phase short-circuit is carried out using Matlab/Simulink. The result shows that the new type of controller is more effective.