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The tuning method of controllers can be used for effectively determining the overall performance of positioning systems. In particular, this method is highly effective in the case of high-speed and high-accuracy positioning systems. In this paper, a sliding-mode controller that uses one of the well-known approaches of robust control methodology is designed for high-speed positioning systems that require a high-accuracy performance. A performance-tuning method based on a disturbance observer (DOB) structure is also proposed. First, a generalized disturbance attenuation framework named robust internal-loop compensator (RIC) is introduced, and a sliding-mode controller based on a Lyapunov redesign is analyzed in the RIC framework. Then, the DOB properties of the sliding-mode controller are presented, and it is shown that the performance of the closed-loop system with a sliding-mode controller can be tuned up by using the structural characteristics of the DOB. These results make the design of an enhanced sliding-mode controller possible. Finally, the proposed algorithm is experimentally verified and discussed with two positioning systems. Experimental results show the effectiveness and the robustness of the proposed scheme.