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As viewpoint issue is becoming a bottleneck for human motion analysis and its application, in recent years, researchers have been devoted to view-invariant human motion analysis and have achieved inspiring progress. The challenge here is to find a methodology that can recognize human motion patterns to reach increasingly sophisticated levels of human behavior description. This paper provides a comprehensive survey of this significant research with the emphasis on view-invariant representation, and recognition of poses and actions. In order to help readers understand the integrated process of visual analysis of human motion, this paper presents recent development in three major issues involved in a general human motion analysis system, namely, human detection, view-invariant pose representation and estimation, and behavior understanding. Public available standard datasets are recommended. The concluding discussion assesses the progress so far, and outlines some research challenges and future directions, and solution to what is essential to achieve the goals of human motion analysis.