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To resolve inefficiencies in traditional decision support system (DSS) as the lack of semantic representation and imperfections of software computing environments, we proposed a semantic decision support system (SDSS). Based on traditional DSS, SDSS expands the existing decision-making methodologies to realize semantics formalization of decision problem, decision model and other data related to decision-making with the help of semantic Web and ontology. We first explained the architecture and the semantic representation in SDSS. Then we defined semantic software computing environment and its modeling method. Collaborative decision making based on semantics is the working principle of SDSS which includes three steps: publishing decision requirement semantics, decision bidding, and role-based collaboration. Lastly we presented the prototype system of SDSS, and an analysis of the effects of the prototype system.