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Two regenerated cellulosic fibers, namely, Tencel and viscose rayon fibers, were modified by means of low temperature plasma (LTP) treatment using oxygen gas. The morphological changes in fiber structure were assessed by a scanning electron microscope, which revealed the formation of ripplelike structures on the treated fiber surface. The ripplelike structures oriented at a direction perpendicular to the fiber axis were developed gradually with increasing LTP treatment time. The LTP treatment not only reduced the tenacity and elongation at break but also increased the percentage of moisture regain of Tencel and viscose rayon fibers. Moreover, the percentage of crystallinity of the LTP-treated fiber assessed by an X-ray diffraction analysis was found to be reduced. In addition, the color of the LTP-treated fiber surface was changed to yellow due to the effect of oxidation caused by the oxygen LTP.