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Most existing camera placement algorithms focus on coverage and/or visibility analysis, which ensures that the object of interest is visible in the camera's field of view (FOV). However, visibility, which is a fundamental requirement of object tracking, is insufficient for automated persistent surveillance. In such applications, a continuous consistently labeled trajectory of the same object should be maintained across different camera views. Therefore, a sufficient uniform overlap between the cameras' FOVs should be secured so that camera handoff can successfully and automatically be executed before the object of interest becomes untraceable or unidentifiable. In this paper, we propose sensor-planning methods that improve existing algorithms by adding handoff rate analysis. Observation measures are designed for various types of cameras so that the proposed sensor-planning algorithm is general and applicable to scenarios with different types of cameras. The proposed sensor-planning algorithm preserves necessary uniform overlapped FOVs between adjacent cameras for an optimal balance between coverage and handoff success rate. In addition, special considerations such as resolution and frontal-view requirements are addressed using two approaches: 1) direct constraint and 2) adaptive weights. The resulting camera placement is compared with a reference algorithm published by Erdem and Sclaroff. Significantly improved handoff success rates and frontal-view percentages are illustrated via experiments using indoor and outdoor floor plans of various scales.
Systems, Man, and Cybernetics, Part B: Cybernetics, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:40 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: Feb. 2010