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Automatic image annotation is a promising way to achieve more effective image management and retrieval. However, system performances of the existing state-of-the-art keyword annotation schemes are often not so satisfactory. Therefore, image annotation refinement is crucial to improve the imprecise annotation results. In this paper, a novel approach is developed to automatically annotate image content by a semi-supervised learning model. With perceptual visual characteristics, the candidate annotations of unlabelled images are first obtained based on a progressive model. Then, a transducitive model, random walk with restart algorithm is used to refine these candidate annotations and the top ones are reserved as the final annotations. Experiments conducted on the typical Corel dataset show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.