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Accurate analytical expressions of delay and packet reception probabilities, and energy consumption of duty-cycled wireless sensor networks with random medium access control (MAC) are instrumental for the efficient design and optimization of these resource-constrained networks. Given a clustered network topology with unslotted IEEE 802.15.4 and preamble sampling MAC, a novel approach to the modeling of the delay, reliability, and energy consumption is proposed. The challenging part in such a modeling is the random MAC and sleep policy of the receivers, which prevents to establish the exact time of data packet transmission. The analysis gives expressions as function of sleep time, listening time, traffic rate and MAC parameters. The analytical results are then used to optimize the duty cycle of the nodes and MAC protocol parameters. The approach provides a significant reduction of the energy consumption compared to existing solutions in the literature. Monte Carlo simulations by ns2 assess the validity of the analysis.