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In this paper, we present space shift keying (SSK) as a new modulation scheme, which is based on spatial modulation (SM) concepts. Fading is exploited for multiple-input multiple-output(MIMO) channels to provide better performance over conventional amplitude/phase modulation (APM) techniques. In SSK, it is the antenna index used during transmission that relays information, rather than the transmitted symbols themselves. This absence of symbol information eliminates the transceiver elements necessary for APM transmission and detection (such as coherent detectors). As well, the simplicity involved in modulation reduces the detection complexity compared to that of SM, while achieving almost identical performance gains. Throughout the paper, we illustrate SSK's strength by studying its interaction with the fading channel. We obtain tight upper bounds on bit error probability, and discuss SSK's performance under some non-ideal channel conditions (estimation error and spatial correlation). Analytical and simulation results show performance gains over APM systems (3 dB at a bit error rate of 10-5), making SSK an interesting candidate for future wireless applications. We then extend SSK concepts to incorporate channel coding, where in particular, we consider a bit interleaved coded modulation (BICM) system using iterative decoding for both convolutional and turbo codes. Capacity results are derived, and improvements over APM are illustrated (up to 1 bits/s/Hz), with performance gains of up to 5 dB.