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We investigate multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) eigenmode transmission using statistical channel state information at the transmitter. We consider a general jointly correlated MIMO channel model, which does not require separable spatial correlations at the transmitter and receiver. For this model, we first derive a closed-form tight upper bound for the ergodic capacity, which reveals a simple and interesting relationship in terms of the matrix permanent of the eigenmode channel coupling matrix and embraces many existing results in the literature as special cases. Based on this closed-form and tractable upper bound expression, we then employ convex optimization techniques to develop low-complexity power allocation solutions involving only the channel statistics. Necessary and sufficient optimality conditions are derived, from which we develop an iterative water-filling algorithm with guaranteed convergence. Simulations demonstrate the tightness of the capacity upper bound and the near-optimal performance of the proposed low-complexity transmitter optimization approach.