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A single feature extractor-classifier is not usually able to deal with the diversity of multiple image scenarios. Therefore, integration of features and classifiers can bring benefits to cope with this problem, particularly when the parts are carefully chosen and synergistically combined. In this paper, we address the problem of pedestrian detection by a novel ensemble method. Initially, histograms of oriented gradients (HOGs) and local receptive fields (LRFs), which are provided by a convolutional neural network, have been both classified by multilayer perceptrons (MLPs) and support vector machines (SVMs). A diversity measure is used to refine the initial set of feature extractors and classifiers. A final classifier ensemble was then structured by an HOG and an LRF as features, classified by two SVMs and one MLP. We have analyzed the following two classes of fusion methods of combining the outputs of the component classifiers: (1) majority vote and (2) fuzzy integral. The first part of the performance evaluation consisted of running the final proposed ensemble over the DaimlerChrysler cropwise data set, which was also artificially modified to simulate sunny and shadowy illumination conditions, which is typical of outdoor scenarios. Then, a window-wise study has been performed over a collected video sequence. Experiments have highlighted a state-of-the-art classification system, performing consistently better than the component classifiers and other methods.
Intelligent Transportation Systems, IEEE Transactions on (Volume:11 , Issue: 1 )
Date of Publication: March 2010