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This work develops an algorithm for estimating the lateral lane index of road vehicles on multi-lane roadways by correlating vehicle attitude measurements to terrain maps of the individual lanes of travel. To localize a vehicle, a Bayesian belief algorithm and a particle filter algorithm are described and applied off-line using data collected from two lanes along a local highway. Results demonstrate that terrain-based algorithms are capable of measuring lane index. Because these measurements are immune to lighting conditions, this solution is a good complement to existing lane-detection camera systems.