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In this paper, we study three types of jammers, namely, pulse-jammer, partial-band jammer, and follower-jammer, in a typical fiber-optic-based spectrally phase-encoded optical code division multiple-access (SPE-OCDMA) system. We analyze, mathematically, the effects of the aforementioned jammers on the performance of an SPE-OCDMA system for two scenarios, namely, ideal noiseless channel with an ideal optimum receiver and an ultrahigh-speed nonlinear receiver based on two-photon-absorption (TPA) in a noisy channel. Also, for each of the above cases, two types of modulation, namely, on-off keying (OOK) and two-code keying (2CK) are investigated and their system performances are compared. It is shown that under certain conditions, the system performance can be dramatically degraded due to the jamming signals; also, systems using 2CK modulation show a better resistance and performance when compared to systems using OOK modulation.