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An analysis of the chip geometry and the force system found in the case of orthogonal cutting accompanied by a type 2 chip has yielded a collection of useful equations which make possible the study of actual machining operations in terms of basic mechanical quantities. The shearing strain undergone by the metal during chip formation, and the velocities of shear and of chip flow are among the geometrical quantities which can be quantitatively determined. The force relationships permit calculation of such quantities as the various significant force components, stresses, the coefficient of friction between chip and cutting tool, and the work done in shearing the metal and in overcoming friction on the tool face. The experimental methods by which such analyses can be readily made are described. Observed and calculated values from typical tests are presented.