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An X‐Ray Investigation of Crystallinity in Rubber

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2 Author(s)
Gehman, S.D. ; The Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Akron, Ohio ; Field, J.E.

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X‐ray diffraction evidence has shown that a crystalline structure can be produced in rubber by stretching or by freezing. In the former case, a fiber diagram is generally secured, in the latter, Debye‐Scherrer rings. When raw rubber was stretched to moderate elongations and frozen an intense fiber diagram was found, showing that the crystallization proceeded from nuclei set up by the stretching. A series of diffraction patterns illustrating the effect are reproduced. The geometrical conditions of stretching under which ``higher orientation'' occurs in stretched rubber were studied by photometric measurements of the relative densities of the first two equatorial spots. Graphs are included demonstrating the effect of variations in gauge, width, length and elongation of the specimens. Higher orientation occurs when the percent contraction in gauge exceeds the percent contraction in width. The different physical structures of vulcanized pure gum stocks became apparent in the ``higher orientation'' characteristics, although the same diffraction pattern was secured. A correlation of the results with current views on the micellar or secondary structure of rubber and the crystallization of supercooled liquids is attempted.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:10 ,  Issue: 8 )