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Distance measurement using an ultrasonic wave is suitable for environment recognition in autonomous mobile robots. Ultrasonic distance measurement with the pulse-echo method is based on determining the time-of-flight (TOF) of the reflected echoes. The pulse-echo method with pulse compression, the cross-correlation method, can improve the distance resolution and the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of the reflected echo. However, cross correlation of the cross-correlation method requires the high-cost digital signal processing. A sensor signal processing method of cross correlation using a delta-sigma modulated single-bit digital signal has been proposed. Cross correlation by single-bit signal processing reduces the calculation cost of cross correlation. Furthermore, cross correlation by single-bit signal processing improves the time resolution of digital signal processing. In this paper, the distance resolution of cross correlation by single-bit signal processing is evaluated by computer simulations and experiments of ultrasonic distance measurement. Distance measurement from the high-time-resolution cross-correlation function obtained by single-bit signal processing realized high distance resolution from experimental results, despite the low calculation costs.