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A method is developed that yields the residual stress, the orientation distribution coefficients, the average crystallite dimension, the microstrain, and the crystal structure parameters from x‐ray diffraction data in a single‐step procedure. To this end, a general approach is introduced that combines the equations of micromechanics with the harmonic description of texture. All relationships are cast into a Rietveld‐like format, which incorporates a microstructure model derived from line‐broadening methods. In this manner, data collected over the whole x‐ray‐diffraction pattern at different tilting of the sample can be fitted directly. The associated fitting parameters are the crystal structure and microstructure, the texture coefficients, and the micromechanical properties and fields. © 1994 American Institute of Physics.