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Hot‐stage transmission electron microscopy studies of phase transformations in tin‐modified lead zirconate titanate

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4 Author(s)
Xu, Z. ; Department of Materials Science and Engineering and Materials Research Laboratory, University of Illinois at Urbana‐Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 61801 ; Viehland, D. ; Yang, P. ; Payne, D.A.

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The temperature dependence of phase stability for tin‐modified lead zirconate titanate solid solution ceramics Pb(0.98)Nb0.02[(Zr1-x, Snx)1-yTiy]1-zO3 (PZST) was investigated by hot‐stage transmission electron microscopy. Compositions studied included, a material that was antiferroelectric (AFE) at room temperature with x=0.42 and y=0.04, and a material that was ferroelectric (FE) at room temperature with x=0.43 and y=0.08 (abbreviated as PZST 42/4/2 and 43/8/2, respectively). PZST 42/4/2 was found to exhibit a sequence of phase transformations on heating of AFE–multicell cubic (MCC)–simple cubic (SC), whereas PZST 43/8/2 had a sequence of FE‐AFE‐MCC‐SC. Previously referred to F spots (i.e., 1/2[111] superlattice spots) were observed in all four phases. The diffraction intensities for the F spots decreased with increasing temperature, and eventually disappeared above 300 °C. Electron diffraction confirmed the presence of the MCC phase which was characterized by the existence of weak 1/2[110] superlattice spots in the temperature region between the AFE and SC phases. In each composition the AFE phase was characterized by arrays of one‐dimensional antiphase domain boundaries and (1/x)[110] superlattice spots. The modulation wavelength for the superlattice spots was found to be a strong function of temperature and was incommensurate with the lattice. The thermal stability of phases in the crystalline solution PZST system is discussed in terms of the observed microstructural features.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:74 ,  Issue: 5 )

Date of Publication:

Sep 1993

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