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On cross sections through semiconductor devices, the electron‐beam‐induced current (EBIC) mode of the scanning electron microscope yields two‐dimensional information on the location of p/n junctions. High resolution can be achieved at low acceleration voltages. Specimens with independently determined doping profile are used to demonstrate that the charge collection is strongly influenced by charged surface states at the sectional plane. Different preparation sequences are described yielding different surface states. Therefore, junction delineation with the EBIC method is strongly affected by specimen preparation. For low‐injection conditions, an analytical model is developed to describe charge‐collection features at low acceleration voltages. The deviation of the maximum charge‐collection signal from the junction position, which occurs as a consequence of the preparation‐induced surface states, is well described by the model.