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Canonical aberration theory has been developed in previous papers by the author. In the present study, the canonical aberration theory has been used to deal with first‐ and third‐order chromatic aberrations (including position and momentum aberrations at an arbitrary observation plane) for rotationally symmetrical optical systems. All first‐ and third‐order chromatic aberrations have been expressed in canonical matrix representations, which are general in nature and appropriate for computer calculations.