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Synthetic heterogeneous material systems, e.g., layered composite materials with organic matrices reinforced by glass fibers (GRP), are attractive materials for a variety of lightweight armor applications. However, while the dynamic response of homogeneous materials, such as, metals and ceramics, has been well documented, the ballistic response of heterogeneous material systems is poorly understood. In the present study, in an attempt to better understand the shock-induced compression response of GRPs, a series of plate impact experiments were conducted on a S2-glas fiber reinforced polymer composite comprising S2-glass woven roving in a Cycom 4102 polyester resin matrix. The plate-impact experiments were conducted using an 82.5 mm bore single-stage gas-gun at the Case Western Reserve University. The history of the shock-induced free-surface particle velocity at the rear surface of the target plate was monitored using the multibeam VALYN™ VISAR system. The results of the experiments indicate the absence of an elastic front in the shock-induced free-surface particle velocity profile in the GRP. Moreover, in the low impact velocity range, relatively weak late-time oscillations are observed in the particle velocity profiles. Increasing the amplitude of the shock-induced compression resulted in a decrease in the rise-time of the shock wave front. The critical shock stress amplitude at which a clear shock-front is seen to develop during the shock loading was determined to be between 1.5 and 2.0 GPa. The results of the experiments are used to obtain the equation of state of the GRP in the stress range 0.04–20 GPa. Moreover, the Hugoniot curve (Hugoniot stress versus Hugoniot strain) was calculated using the Rankine–Hugoniot relationships; the departure of the Hugoniot stress versus the particle velocity curve from linearity allowed the estimation of the Hugoniot elastic limit of the GRP to be about 1.6 GPa.