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Scientists and clinicians have a keen interest in studying not just the structure of physiological systems, but their motion also, or more generally their form and function. This paper focuses on the technologies that underpin in vivo measurements of form and function of the human body for both research and medical treatment. A concise literature review of x-ray imaging, ultrasonography, magnetic resonance imaging, radionuclide imaging, laser Doppler velocimetry, and particle image velocimetry is presented. Additionally, a more detailed review of in vivo x-ray imaging is presented. Finally, two techniques, which the authors believe are representative of the present and future of in vivo x-ray imaging techniques, are presented.