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Work Function Variation of Metals Coated by Metallic Films

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2 Author(s)
Gyftopoulos, Elias P. ; Department of Nuclear Engineering and Research Laboratory of Electronics, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, massachusetts ; Levine, Jules D.

Your organization might have access to this article on the publisher's site. To check, click on this link:http://dx.doi.org/+10.1063/1.1728530 

A theoretical correlation is derived to account for the variation of the work function of refractory metals coated by metallic films for all degrees of coverage. This correlation is based on an extension of the concept of electronegativity to composite surfaces and use of Pauling's rule about electronegativity and dipole moment of complex molecules. A series of theoretical curves is given for different crystallographically ideal surfaces of refractory metals such as W, Mo, and Ta coated by Cs, Sr, Ba, and Th. The derived correlation is compared with available experimental data for which the experimenters specify the exact conditions under which the experiment is performed and excellent agreement between theory and experiment is established. It is shown for the first time that the maximum work function variation does not necessarily always occur either when a full monolayer is reached or at a definite fractional coverage. The exact position of the maximum variation is a function of the adsorbate and substrate materials and the type of the substrate surfaces. It is also shown that it is erroneous to characterize a monolayer as the point at which maximum emission (or maximum work function variation) is achieved because such a maximum may be flat and extend from half a monolayer to one monolayer.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:33 ,  Issue: 1 )