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Effect of Stress on the Expansion Coefficient

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2 Author(s)
Rosenfield, A.R. ; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts ; Averbach, B.L.

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The expansion coefficients of specimens under tensile stress and after the stress has been removed have been measured for three steels (0.20, 0.40, 0.80% carbon) and for two types of Invar. If the applied stress is below the elastic limit the change in expansion coefficient α, with stress σ is shown to be given by (∂α/∂σ)T=-1/E2(∂E/∂T)σ, where E is Young's modulus and T the temperature; if the stress is removed the expansivity returns to its original value. When the applied stress exceeds the elastic limit, there is a discontinuous change in expansion coefficient, and the expansivity on unloading differs from the original value. The lattice distortion associated with the onset of even a slight plastic strain (2×10-6) appears sufficient to change the expansion coefficient both under load and after the load is removed.

Published in:

Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:27 ,  Issue: 2 )