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In this paper, laboratory-based bidirectional reflectance distribution function (BRDF) analysis of vegetation leaves, soil, and leaf-litter samples is presented. The leaf litter and soil samples, numbered 1 and 2, were obtained from a site located in the savanna biome of South Africa (Skukuza: 25.0deg S, 31.5deg E). A third soil sample, number 3, was obtained from Etosha Pan, Namibia (19.20deg S, 15.93deg E, altitude of 1100 m). In addition, BRDF of local fresh and dry leaves from tulip polar tree (Liriodendron tulipifera) and black locust tree (Robinia pseudoacacia) were studied. It is shown how the BRDF depends on the incident and scatter angles, sample size (i.e., crushed versus whole leaf), soil samples fraction size, sample status (i.e., fresh versus dry leaves), vegetation species (i.e., poplar versus locust), and the vegetation's biochemical composition. As a demonstration of the application of the results of this paper, airborne BRDF measurements acquired with NASA's Cloud Absorption Radiometer over the same general site where the soil and leaf-litter samples were obtained are compared to the laboratory results. Good agreement between laboratory and airborne-measured BRDF is reported.