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Optical properties in titanium‐diffused LiNbO3 strip waveguides

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3 Author(s)
Fukuma, Masaharu ; Musashino Electrical Communication Laboratory, Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Public Corporation, 3‐9‐11, Midoricho, Musashino‐shi, Tokyo 180, Japan ; Noda, J. ; Iwasaki, Hiroshi

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Optical insertion losses in embedded strip waveguides fabricated in LiNbO3 by Ti diffusion have been examined at a 0.633‐μm wavelength, taking into account resultant near‐field patterns. It is confirmed that the main factors influencing optical insertion losses are radiation loss by the deficient refractive‐index change of a waveguide, scattering loss by insufficient diffused residual titanium oxide film on a waveguide, and coupling loss between a waveguide and a fiber. A diffusion condition for making a low‐loss waveguide is presented, although suppression of lateral diffusion is necessary to achieve further insertion‐loss reduction.

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Journal of Applied Physics  (Volume:49 ,  Issue: 7 )