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We present a 3-tier UWB-based indoor localization system. It consists of a large number of energy-scavenging-based cost-effective transmit-only tags, a small number of battery powered hubs as relay stations and a few base stations. This hierarchical scheme is driven by the energy available at each node. Localization is based on the arrival time of the UWB pulses at reference nodes.We describe how the coordinates and transmit time of a tag are determined and how the ambiguous solution is eliminated with the proper geometry of 4 reference nodes. We formulate where to place the hubs as an optimization problem. The localization performance of the system is investigated as a function of several parameters such as non-ideal hub placement, hub localization error and TOA error.
Date of Publication: June 2009