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One of the most significant impediments to the use of LDPC codes in many communication and storage systems is the error-rate floor phenomenon associated with their iterative decoders. The error floor has been attributed to certain subgraphs of an LDPC code's Tanner graph induced by so-called trapping sets. We show in this paper that once we identify the trapping sets of an LDPC code of interest, a sum-product algorithm (SPA) decoder can be custom-designed to yield floors that are orders of magnitude lower than floors of the the conventional SPA decoder. We present three classes of such decoders: (1) a bi-mode decoder, (2) a bit-pinning decoder which utilizes one or more outer algebraic codes, and (3) three generalized-LDPC decoders. We demonstrate the effectiveness of these decoders for two codes, the rate-1/2 (2640,1320) Margulis code which is notorious for its floors and a rate-0.3 (640,192) quasi-cyclic code which has been devised for this study. Although the paper focuses on these two codes, the decoder design techniques presented are fully generalizable to any LDPC code.