The recombination and dissociation of H+2 and H+3 ions incident upon metal surfaces leads to H, H2(v‘), and H- products rebounding from the surface. A four‐step model for H+2 ‐ion recombination generates H2(v‘) via resonant electron capture through the b 3Σ+u and X 1Σ+g states. A molecular trajectory analysis provides final‐state H2(v‘) distributions for incident energies of 1, 4, 10, and 20 eV. The calculated H2 H+2 yields compare favorably with the observed yields. A similar four‐step model for incident H+3 proceeds via resonant capture to form the H3(2p 2E’→2p 2A1) ground state, in turn dissociating into H+H2(v_‘), with the fragment molecule rebounding to give the final H2(v‘) distribution. Comparing the final populations v‘≥5 for incident H+2 or H+3 shows that the H+3 ion will be more useful than H+2 for H- generation via dissociative attachment. Molecular ions incident upon low‐work‐function surfaces generate additional H2(v‘) via resonant electron capture through excited electronic states and provide two additional sources of H- production: Direct H- production by H dissociation products rebounding from the surface and H- production through the formation of H-2 in the surface selvage that in turn dissociates into H+H-. The H-2 in the selvage is formed by resonant capture to the low‐lying vibratio- nal levels of H2(v‘), and complements dissociative attachment to high‐lying levels in the discharge. The H, H2(v‘), and H- yields are inventoried for H+3 incident upon barium surfaces.