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The light trapping properties of textured optical sheets have become of recent interest in photovoltaic energy conversion since light trapping allows a significant reduction in the thickness of active solar cell material. Previous analyses have concentrated on sheets with randomly textured (Lambertian) surfaces. The texturing of crystalline silicon substrates with anisotropic etches to give surfaces covered by square based pyramids defined by intersecting (111) crystallographic planes is a widely used technique for reflection control in silicon solar cells. This paper analyzes the light trapping properties of substrates with such pyramidally textured surfaces. Important differences are found from the case of Lambertian surfaces with practical consequences for the design of high efficiency silicon solar cells.