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Palmprint has proved to be one of the most unique and stable biometric characteristics. Almost all the current palmprint recognition techniques capture the 2-D image of the palm surface and use it for feature extraction and matching. Although 2-D palmprint recognition can achieve high accuracy, the 2-D palmprint images can be counterfeited easily and much 3-D depth information is lost in the imaging process. This paper explores a 3-D palmprint recognition approach by exploiting the 3-D structural information of the palm surface. The structured light imaging is used to acquire the 3-D palmprint data, from which several types of unique features, including mean curvature image, Gaussian curvature image, and surface type, are extracted. A fast feature matching and score-level fusion strategy are proposed for palmprint matching and classification. With the established 3-D palmprint database, a series of verification and identification experiments is conducted to evaluate the proposed method. The results demonstrate that 3-D palmprint technique has high recognition performance. Although its recognition rate is a little lower than 2-D palmprint recognition, 3-D palmprint recognition has higher anticounterfeiting capability and is more robust to illumination variations and serious scrabbling in the palm surface. Meanwhile, by fusing the 2-D and 3-D palmprint information, much higher recognition rate can be achieved.