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This paper addresses estimation of the equivalent number of looks (ENL), an important parameter in statistical modeling of multilook synthetic aperture radar (SAR) images. Two new ENL estimators are discovered by looking at certain moments of the multilook polarimetric covariance matrix, which is commonly used to represent multilook polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data, and assuming that the covariance matrix is complex Wishart distributed. First, a second-order trace moment provides a polarimetric extension of the ENL definition and also a matrix-variate version of the conventional ENL estimator. The second estimator is obtained from the log-determinant matrix moment and is also shown to be the maximum likelihood estimator under the Wishart model. It proves to have much lower variance than any other known ENL estimator, whether applied to single-polarization or PolSAR data. Moreover, this estimator is less affected by texture and thus provides more accurate results than other estimators should the assumption of Gaussian statistics for the complex scattering coefficients be violated. These are the first known estimators to use the full covariance matrix as input, rather than individual intensity channels, and therefore to utilize all the statistical information available. We finally demonstrate how an ENL estimate can be computed automatically from the empirical density of small sample estimates calculated over a whole scene. We show that this method is more robust than procedures where the estimate is calculated in a manually selected region of interest.