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Recent development in multimedia processing and network technologies has facilitated the distribution and sharing of multimedia through networks, and increased the security demands of multimedia contents. Traditional image content protection schemes use extrinsic approaches, such as watermarking or fingerprinting. However, under many circumstances, extrinsic content protection is not possible. Therefore, there is great interest in developing forensic tools via intrinsic fingerprints to solve these problems. Source coding is a common step of natural image acquisition, so in this paper, we focus on the fundamental research on digital image source coder forensics via intrinsic fingerprints. First, we investigate the unique intrinsic fingerprint of many popular image source encoders, including transform-based coding (both discrete cosine transform and discrete wavelet transform based), subband coding, differential image coding, and also block processing as the traces of evidence. Based on the intrinsic fingerprint of image source encoders, we construct an image source coding forensic detector that identifies which source encoder is applied, what the coding parameters are along with confidence measures of the result. Our simulation results show that the proposed system provides trustworthy performance: for most test cases, the probability of detecting the correct source encoder is over 90%.