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The high flux of high energy X-rays that can be provided through state-of-the-art high energy synchrotron beam lines has enabled a variety of new experiments with the highly absorbing Nb3Sn superconductors. We report different experiments with Nb3Sn strands that have been conducted at the ID15 High Energy Scattering beam line of the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF). Synchrotron X-ray diffraction has been used in order to monitor phase transformations during in-situ reaction heat treatments prior to Nb3Sn formation, and to monitor Nb3Sn growth. Fast synchrotron micro-tomography was applied to study void growth during the reaction heat treatment of Internal Tin strands. The elastic strain in the different phases of fully reacted Nb3Sn composite conductors has been measured by high resolution X-ray diffraction during in-situ tensile tests.