Skip to Main Content
This paper is concerned with the estimation of radio communication distance for wireless sensor networks when both the transmitters and receivers are arbitrarily distributed on a random rough surface such as desert, vegetation ground, sea surface and so on. First, we simulate electromagnetic wave propagation along the rough surface by using the discrete ray tracing method (DRTM). Second, we determine three parameters necessary for evaluation of communication distance by conjugate gradient method combined with the method of least-squares. Finally, we derive an analytical expression which can estimate the maximum communication distance when the input power of a transmitter and the minimum detectable electric intensity of a receiver are specified. Numerical examples are also given for estimated communication distances with the deviation of rough surface height as a parameter.