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Compromised-node and denial-of-service are two key attacks in wireless sensor networks (WSNs). In this paper, we study routing mechanisms that circumvent (bypass) black holes formed by these attacks. We argue that existing multi-path routing approaches are vulnerable to such attacks, mainly due to their deterministic nature. So once an adversary acquires the routing algorithm, it can compute the same routes known to the source, and hence endanger all information sent over these routes. In this paper, we develop mechanisms that generate randomized multi-path routes. Under our design, the routes taken by the "shares" of different packets change over time. So even if the routing algorithm becomes known to the adversary, the adversary still cannot pinpoint the routes traversed by each packet. Besides randomness, the routes generated by our mechanisms are also highly dispersive and energy-efficient, making them quite capable of bypassing black holes at low energy cost. Extensive simulations are conducted to verify the validity of our mechanisms.
INFOCOM 2009, IEEE
Date of Conference: 19-25 April 2009