Boron diffusion in Si and strained SiGe with and without C was studied using point defect injection. Interstitial-, vacancy- and noninjection conditions were achieved by annealing Si capping layers which were either bare, with Si3N4 film or with Si3N4+SiO2 bilayers, respectively. Concentration profiles of B, Ge, and C were obtained using secondary-ion-mass spectrometry and diffusion coefficients of B in each type of matrix were extracted by computer simulation. Under inert annealing, we find that C strongly suppresses B diffusion in SiGe:C, but the effect of C is less strong in Si:C, particularly at high temperatures. In contrast, C only weakly suppresses B diffusion in both Si:C and SiGe:C under interstitial injection. For inert anneal conditions, C reduces the B diffusion coefficient in Si:C by factors of 4.2, 5.9, and 1.9 at 940, 1000, and 1050 °C respectively, whereas for interstitial injection the factors are 2.1, 1.3, and 1.1, respectively. The equivalent factors for SiGe:C are 8.4, 5.9, and 8.0 for inert anneal conditions and 2.2, 3.4, and 1.6 for interstitial injection conditions. The degree of B diffusion suppression achieved in both Si:C and SiGe:C is dependent on the level of C retained during annealing. Diffusion of C is shown to be faster in Si:C and hence less C is retained there after annealing than in SiGe:C. Interstitial injection is shown to strongly enhance C diffusion in both Si:C and SiGe:C and hence decreases the effectiveness of C for B diffusion suppression. These findings illustrate that the retarding effect of C on B diffusion in both Si:C and SiGe:C is strongly reduced when the anneal is carried out under conditions where interstitials are injected from the surface.